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Volume Weighted Average Price (VWAP) is a technical indicator used by traders to gauge the average price at which a security has traded throughout the day, based on both price and volume.

The VWAP provides insights into market liquidity, trade execution quality, and potential entry and exit points.

What is VWAP?

VWAP is a benchmark used by traders and investors to determine the average price of a security, taking into account both its price and trading volume.

VWAP indicator

By incorporating volume data, VWAP provides a more accurate representation of a security’s true average price throughout the trading day.

This helps traders understand the market’s liquidity, assess the efficiency of their trade executions, and identify potential trading opportunities.

How is VWAP calculated?

VWAP is calculated by dividing the total dollar value of all trading transactions for a particular security by the total trading volume for that security.

The formula for VWAP is as follows:

VWAP = (Σ (Price × Volume)) / Σ Volume


  • Price represents the price of the security at a specific point in time.
  • Volume is the number of shares or contracts traded at that particular price.

How to Trade with VWAP

1. Assess Trade Execution Quality

Institutional traders often use VWAP to evaluate their trade execution performance.

By comparing their average execution price to the VWAP, they can assess whether they have executed their trades at favorable prices or if they have paid too much (or received too little) for the security.

2. Identify Support and Resistance Levels

VWAP can serve as a dynamic support and resistance level for intraday trading.

  • When the price is above the VWAP, it may act as a support level, indicating that the security is trading at a favorable price.
  • When the price is below the VWAP, it may act as a resistance level, suggesting that the security is trading at a less favorable price.

3. Trade VWAP Breakouts and Reversals

Traders can use VWAP to identify potential breakouts and reversals in a security’s price.

  • When the price crosses above the VWAP, it can signal a bullish trend, and traders may consider entering long positions.
  • When the price crosses below the VWAP, it can indicate a bearish trend, and traders may consider entering a short position.

VWAP is a powerful technical indicator that helps traders and investors gauge the average price of a security throughout the day, factoring in both price and covering short positions.

4. Combine VWAP with other indicators

To increase the effectiveness of their trading strategies, traders can combine VWAP with other technical indicators, such as moving averages, Relative Strength Index (RSI), or Bollinger Bands.

This helps confirm potential trading signals and may improve the overall accuracy of the trading strategy.

Limitations of VWAP

While VWAP is a valuable tool for traders, it has its limitations.

As an intraday indicator, it is less useful for long-term investors or those who trade on longer timeframes.

Additionally, VWAP is more effective in highly liquid markets, as it relies on volume data to provide accurate information.

In less liquid markets, the VWAP may be less reliable and may not accurately reflect the true average price of a security.

If you want to learn more foreign exchange trading knowledge, please click: Trading Education.

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