A means of governing the country, often involving economic measures such as asset freezes and trade restrictions, used to force another party to adopt a certain behavior or result.

Convince another country to take some political action, such as stopping human rights abuses or developing nuclear weapons.

How to use them?

In 1979, the United States banned imports from Iran after a group of Iranian college students took 52 American diplomats and citizens hostage at the U.S. Embassy in Tehran, the so-called Iran Hostage Crisis. Partly as a result of the ensuing intensification of hostilities, the U.S. Congress passed the Iran-Iraq Arms Nonproliferation Act of 1992, which prohibited the transfer to Iran of goods or technology that could be used to build nuclear weapons. The EU supports the United States in imposing some of these sanctions. The impact of sanctions has varied: While Iran has built an economy that is resistant to these sanctions, it has also experienced severe setbacks. For example, Iran experienced shortages of non-sanctioned products such as cancer drugs in 2012 due to difficulties moving money in and out of the country.

In most cases, countries erect trade barriers to make it easier to sell their goods abroad or domestically, and various economic and political developments can cause countries to prioritize security, politics, or domestic industry over free trade. But these trade barriers almost always have unintended consequences and do not always achieve their goals.

Ultimately, trade will always be messier than the open path the WTO is supposed to protect, but as globalization continues to bring markets closer together, every country will have to deal with the effects of free trade and trade. The obstacles that come with that.